About Myers Briggs MBTI

Learn about the Myers Briggs Type Instrument – MBTI Personality Profiling


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The Myers Briggs personality profiling instrument – MBTI® – is one of the most widely used psychological instruments for self-awareness in the world today. The Myers Briggs/MBTI Questionnaire was developed by Katharine C Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. It was based on the work of Swiss psychiatrist, C G Jung. Yung was a contemporary of Maslow and Freud. Yung’s theory was that the differences between people are not random – instead they form patterns. He claimed that personality patterns form as people use natural preferences. Jung called these patterns or preferences ‘Psychological Types’


Psychological type theory describes four pairs of preferences for:

  1. How you are energised (Extraversion or Introversion)
  2. How you take in information (Sensing or Intuition)
  3. How you make decisions (Thinking or Feeling)
  4. How you go about your daily life (Judging and Perceiving)

The combinations of these eight preferences results in 16 psychological or personality types, each with a natural, created way of being – each with its own distinctive approach to life. These and other differences can cause teams in any organisation to not function as well as they might.



The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is not a test. There are no passes or fails. There are no rights or wrongs. No Type is better than any other Type. All types are equally valuable. And just because you are a certain MBTI Type, this does not give you a license to always behave in a certain way.


It does however provide:

  • A logical model for the consistency of human behaviour
  • Neutral and affirmative language to deal with differences
  • Emphasizes the value of diversity
  • Identifies likely ASSETS and BLINDSPOTS of people and teams


Understanding why people behave in certain ways can help team members appreciate personality differences in others and work with them rather than fight them and be frustrated. Having greater self awareness of your own personality preferences allows you to modify your approach when interacting with others in your team. This increases your chances of communicating more effectively and can lead to lower levels of frustration and conflict.


At work, the Myers Briggs personality assessment tool can be useful in:

  • Personal Development and Self-Awareness
  • Improving Communication
  • Improving Team-Work
  • Leadership
  • Problem Solving
  • Resolving Conflict
  • Decision Making
  • Dealing with Stress
  • Coping with Change
  • Learning Styles


We can customise a training program for your team using the fundamentals of Myers Briggs Type Theory and how it applies to any of the above areas.


See our popular MBTI Team Building & Communication workshop which we run in-house for teams. The aim of this training is to improve team work and communication within teams. It can be easily customised to achieve the outcomes you are looking for.


MBTI Step II Assessment and Report


Most people are familiar with the Myers Briggs Step I instrument. This is the basic MBTI that tells you which one of the 16 available MBTI Types you might be. Ie ENFP or ESTP etc. It is the basic MBTI that most people are familiar with. Much less known is the MBTI Step II version which is rather unfortunate, because I find it a most valuable tool in developing increased self-awareness.


In fact, there are three common challenges with relying on Step I results:

  1. Some people do not have all the attributes associated with a Type preference. ie Initiating, Expressive, Gregarious, Active or Enthusiastic
  2. Some people have unclear preferences on one or more preference pairs and finally…
  3. Basic Typing fails to demonstrate within-Type differences


The MBTI® Step II Assessment and accompanying Interpretive Report results usually reveal these differences


What is the MBTI Step II assessment?


From the CPP web site:  ….. “The basic versions of the Indicator (Form M and the earlier Form G) yield type descriptions distinguishing the sixteen types from one another but offer relatively few clues as to how people of the same type may differ….” Excerpted from MBTI® Step II Manual: Exploring the Next Level of Type within the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Form Q  (Emphasis added)


In undertaking the MBTI Step II assessment, the respondent has to answer an additional 47 questions which help identify the MBTI Step II Facets under each set of preference pairs. (E/I, S/N etc). The MBTI Step II Facets that are measured are as follows:


Extraverting – Initiating, Expressive, Gregarious, Active and Enthusiastic

Introverting – Receiving, Contained, Intimate, Reflective and Quiet

Sensing – Concrete, Realistic, Practical, Experiential and Traditional

Intuiting – Abstract, Imaginative, Conceptual, Theoretical and Original

Thinking – Logical, Reasonable, Questioning, Critical and Tough

Feeling – Empathetic, Compassionate, Accommodating, Accepting and Tender

Judging – Systematic, Planful, Early Starting, Scheduled and Methodical

Perceiving – Casual, Open-ended, Prompted, Spontaneous and Emergent


The Facets above come complete with descriptions and the extra questions you take will show you where you likely sit on each Facet and whether you are “In Preference” or “Out of Preference” on that Facet. See below


In Preference

When a person has a Facet result that is in keeping with their Preference Pairing, we say they are “In Preference” . In the example below, this person has an “In Preference” result on the Gregarious/Intimate Facet. Note the person is an Introvert – ISTJ.


Out of Preference

When a person has a Facet result that is NOT in keeping with their Preference Pairing, we say they are “Out of Preference” on that facet.  So in the example below, this person has an “Out of Preference” result on the Enthusiastic/Quiet facet. Again, note the person is an Introvert – ISTJ. An introvert would normally be associated with Quiet.



There is one more option available. It is possible to be in the “Midzone” on any Facet. That is they don’t have a strong preference either way on that Facet. In the diagram below, this is exactly how it looks. This person is an Introvert with a Midzone score on the Initiating/Receiving Facet. In fact they sit Midzone on two other facet preference pairings.

So, three results are possible on any Facet:

  1. In Preference
  2. Out of Preference
  3. Midzone


As you can see the above information offers richness and depth to your MBTI Type that you just cannot get when using the basic MBTI Step I Assessment.


The purpose of the MBTI Step II Report is to:

  • Help to clarify an unclear preference
  • Provide descriptions of an individual’s unique way of expressing his/her type
  • Helps you better understand others (in more depth)
  • Focus on potential areas for development


We now use the Step II Report in our Team Building programs especially for those who have done the normal Step I,  MBTI before. It enables us to construct activities based on a person’s Facet results rather than just their normal Step I preference pairing. These activities can then really target differences within a Type and the results are normally very accurate and very insightful in terms of how a person might behave at work.


Contact us today for more information on how the MBTI Step II Instrument can help your team to function more effectively with this new and intimate knowledge.

And read some Client Feedback on how the MBTI Step II can be used in a team building workshop.

Related MBTI Training

  • MBTI - Team Building & Communication

    • This is a highly interactive session where participants have a lot of fun whilst learning how to interrelate more effectively with others in your team. It is not about right and wrong, rather it is about different and complimentary.

  • Myers Briggs Assessment & Personal Debrief

    • Having a good understanding of your own personality type according to the Myers Briggs framework can help improve your self-awareness.  We can use Myers Briggs Step I or Step II Assessment.